Today’s Glossary of Photography Terms

Photography has a lot of different vocab, phrases, acronyms & numbers. In this photography tips glossary page I will try and cover all the needed photography terms, so you will know what we’re talking about, as well as be able to speak with other digital photographers.

4K UHD & DCI

4K UHD is a ultra high definition 16:9 format that has a screen resolution of 3840x2160 4K UHD

4K DCI Is also a ultra high definition format which has a resolution of 4096x2160. 4K DCI Is most commonly found in professional cameras .

720P

7020P Is a  high definition format that has a screen aspect ratio of 16:9  and a screen resolution of 1280 x 720.  1280 lines of horizontal resolution x 720  lines of vertical resolution. Knowing that the screen vertical resolution is 1280 x 720  you can see why photographers and videographers just use the shorthand of 720P.

1080P

1080P Is known as full-HD Which  has a screen aspect ratio of 16:9 And a screen resolution of 1920 x 1080 . 1920 Lines of horizontal resolution x 1080 lines of vertical resolution.  Because the vertical resolution is1080 you could see why photographers and videographers use the shorthand of 1080P.

Absolute & Camera Resolution

Absolute and camera resolution is the same thing, which is the camera sensor image resolution max. Camera resolution is expressed with horizontal and vertical lines of resolution of a camrea sensor. For example The Canon 5D MarkIV  has a max camera resolution of of 6720 x 4480.  if you times the horizontal resolution with the vertical resolution you will find a camera megapixel rating. 6720 x 4480 =  301056 Which means mega pixel rating for this camera is 30.1MP which  Canon labels their 5D Mark IV camera as 30.4MP. You can see Canon rounded up a bit but this gets you the idea of camera resolution and how to use it

Adobe RGB

Adobe RGB is a color space Developed by you guessed it… Adobe,  which is widely used by graphic artists and photographers alike. Adobe RGB was created to encompass most of the colors available to modern CMYK color printers. The idea here is if a printer can’t do a select color of blue make sure that select color of blue doesn’t show up when you are editing a photo.

Additive Colors

Additive colors are red, green, blue (RGB),  and additive color uses a  mixture of R,G,B lights mixed together to produce your color.  you see additive colors mostly used in theater & stage lighting

AF Servo

AF Servo is an Automatic Focusing system in your camera. With continuous servo AF your camera will constantly focus  to try and keep moving objects in focus.  For example if you had a bicycle riding towards you the photographer, your camera will update the focus live. Another benefit of Continuous Servo AF is if the photographer is moving while your subject is holding still the camera will adjust its focus.  

Aliasing

Is a digital artifact sometimes found in low resolution pictures. Let’s say you go out and take a picture of a chain link fence and if you were to zoom out on the picture and those chain links would appear to be zig zaggy.

Aperture

Aperture is an adjustable opening in your lens that limits the amount of light that passes to the film or digital camera sensor. Aperture is also called a f-stop which describe your lens’ aperture. f/2 f/4 f/11 f/22 etc…. The Larger the f-stop the smaller diameter of your aperture so the smaller the f-stop number is the larger your aperture is. (I know it’s backwards and confusing at first) Aperture not only impacts your exposure it changes the depth of field in your picture. A picture with an aperture of f/2  can have a very selective focus allowing your subject to be nice and sharp and your background out of focus. If you wanted to take a picture with almost everything is in focus you would shoot with an aperture of f /11.  If your photograph needed to be completely infocus and you needed a large depth of field you would shoot with an aperture of f/32  The higher the f-stop the greater depth of field.

Aperture priority

Aperture priority is a semi automatic metering mode with most modern cameras.  When using  aperture priority the photographer selects the desired aperture and the camera will automatically select the shutter speed. Aperture priority is a metering mode designed for the photographer who has a specific f-stop or depth of field in mind but the ambient light keeps changing so rapidly that they don’t want to update the shutter speed manually.  

APS-C

APS-C Is describing the size of a digital sensor most compact SLR cameras use. APS stands for  Advanced Photo System. An APS digital image sensor is about half the size of old 35mm film or a full frame digital sensor. Because the sensor is so much smaller there is a 1.5 magnification to your lens. So if you had a digital camera with a APS-C sensor and you were to put on a 50mm lens it would actually feel like you were shooting with the 75 mm lens 50x1.5=75

Artifacts

Artifacts refers to imperfections in the image.  artifacts can be anything from noise, moire, Ghosting random blocks of color it’s kind of a catch-all term for something you don’t want on your photo.  Whatever your artifact is there are tips and tricks to remove them from your photo.

ASA

ASA  is an abbreviation for the American Standards Association. ASA is a rating system  describing light sensitivity for film or your digital camera sensor.  ASA is not commonly used anymore, as camera/film manufacturers and photographers all use the ISO (International Standards Organization)

Aspect ratio

Aspect ratio talks about the format or shape of an image produced by a digital camera. Most cameras today shoot in a 16:9 format,  while old tv shows or movies were shot in 4:3.  No aspect ratio is better than another becuase it all comes down to personal preference. Would you rather have a square image or would you rather have a panoramic…it is up to you.

ATSC

ATSC Is an abbreviation for the Advanced Television Systems Committee.  ATSC Is a collection of standards related to cable and satellite networks.

Audio

As photographers we don’t have to worry about audio all too often, however now that digital cameras are being designed to capture video more cameras can capture audio in stereo with built-in mics.  Some photography cameras have the ability to add an external mic to increase audio quality, or add a wireless mic.

Autofocus

Autofocus The camera is ability to help Focus and keep a subject in Focus during an exposure. Autofocus can be continuous or locked. Continuous meaning the camera is constantly trying to focus on your subject or the camera locks Focus until you release the shutter.

Auto White Balance (AWB)

Automatic white balance is a camera function which adjusts  the intensity of colors (red, blue, green,) automatically when taking a picture.  White balance changes the overall mixture of colors in your picture which changes the temperature in your photograph.

Average Metering

Average metering is a system where the camera takes all of the light values in your frame and provides an average giving you a baseline for your exposure. If your frame is very evenly lit average metering is perfect  as it just takes an average of your frame.  If you were taking pictures of a subject backlit on a bright Mountain top Average Metering will just make your subject underexposed.

Barrel Distortion

Barrel distortion Is mostly noted with cheaper wide-angle lenses. Barrel distortion Allen’s effect where the image horizontal or vertical lines are no longer straight end up here to be wrapped around a barrel or spear.  the most common example of wanted Barrel Distortion is a fisheye lens.  when you’re looking at a fisheye lens you will see it is curved or bubbled like a sphere.

Batch Editing & Scanning

In photography batch editing or scanning is the ability to process more than one image at a time. Batch editing is a great way to help reduce your time with tedious editing tasks.  Batch editing is a great tool if you were to edit many pictures the same way, For example putting a watermark on your photographs to protect your images.

Bit

A bit or (binary digit)  is Smallest unit used with computer and digital camera.  Digital Pictures are described by the number of bits every megapixel.  To keep this simple a 1 bit image is black & white while an 24-bit image is full color (256 colors or 16,777,216 possibilities).

Bitmap

Bitmaps is a memory organization system which is basically just a rectangular grouping of horizontal and vertical cells or bits called pixels. The higher the density of pixels will create a sharper and more detailed picture. Bit mapping the universal thing and  can be read on all computers and devices.

Blown Out

Blown out is a term used by photographers to describe a picture being overexposed.  blown out typically is a negative term but if you want in your picture to be really high key and low contrast blown out may be a good thing.  When a picture is blown out it is usually so overexposed that you lost and can’t recover some highlight detail.  If you have a picture that is blown out it’s not impossible but very difficult to recover any loss detail. Typically if you take a picture that is blown out you would delete it on the spot and try again.

BMP

BMP is a bitmap file format used by Microsoft. A BMP file can store two dimensional images in full color and in black and white.  See Bitmap

Bokeh

Bokeh Refers to an out-of-focus area in a photograph. Bokeh or the out-of-focus area could be in the background or foreground but usually appears as soft circles and shapes. Bokeh Is not a bad thing or good thing like with all other art it’s up to personal preference. Portrait photographers love Bokeh and use it in almost every picture.  Bokeh is usually achieved when a photographer shoots wide open like f/2,  but Bokeh  can also be achieved by having objects in front or behind your subjects. Bokeh  it’s a great way to turn uninteresting or a ugly background into beautiful photographic elements.

Bracketing

bracketing is the process where a photographer takes multiple images of the same frame, but in little ½- stop increments. Bracketing is a good tool for a learning photographer as it will create several images with different exposures.  Bracketing is important with HDR ( High dynamic range) pictures, because HDR pictures use a combination of the multiple bracketed images to create one HDR picture.

Buffer memory

Buffer memory is short-term memory built into the camera to hold images while the memory card processes other pictures.  Buffer memory is great because your camera could continue taking pictures while your memory card is busy.  Without buffering memory you wouldn’t be able to take any photos while your memory card is processing.

Burst

Burst is when a camera takes a number of continuous images, Which is usually Limited to the cameras buffer memory.  cameras have a Max shooting speed which is limited by the cameras buffer memory size.  for example the Canon 5D Mark IV  has a continuous shooting speed up to 7 fps (frames per second). At 30 megapixels for up to 21 RAW pictures. Different camera manufacturers Call It by different things but in order for your camera to shoot  this fast it needs to be in a “burst” or “continuous” drive mode first. Not every photographer likes Burst Mode because if you have a heavy finger and they’re only trying to take one picture you might walk away with four or five images.

Card Reader & Writer

Is a device which helps transfer data directly from a memory card to a computer without using a camera. Most professional and amateur photographers use card readers and writers to save wear and tear on their cameras.  photographers also use card readers cuz typically their cameras are packed away in bags and it’s easier to just use a memory card reader to transfer pictures to your computer.

CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor)

CMOS is a type of digital photography sensor used in digital cameras. CMOS Is a active pixel sensor which means it has a photodetector and amplifier.  CMOS sensors are widely used in entry-level cameras. A CMOS sensor captures a row of pixels at a time Instead of all the pixels at the same time which can result in a rolling shutter effect.

CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, black)

CMYK is a color space used with most offset printing services and  commercial printers. CMYK Is a subtractive color model and it refers to the four kinds of ink used C –  cyan, M – magenta,  Y – yellow, K – key (Black).  K represents black because the letter b is already being used for the color blue so the k comes from black.  

Continuous AF Servo

Continuous Servo is an Automatic Focusing system in your camera. With continuous servo AF your camera will constantly focus  to try and keep moving objects in focus.  For example if you had a bicycle riding towards you the photographer, your camera will update the focus live. Another benefit of Continuous Servo AF is if the photographer is moving while your subject is holding still the camera will adjust its focus.  

Color Temperature

Color temperature  is a scale measuring the color of your ambient or other light source.  color temperature range from 1700K –  10,000K (K = Kelvin) Color temperature is important to digital photography as the color temperature effects the look and colors in your picture. Color temperature can be adjusted in your camera or in post-production.  

Color temperatures range between:

~1700K – 3200K  are considered warm colors, example light sources in this color temperature  range would be candles, incandescent lamps, or light bulbs noted as “soft or warm”

~ 5000K – 6500K are considered as neutral or daylight balanced.  Example light sources would be light bulbs labelled daylight or cool White. The Sun at noon high in the sky is 6000K

~ 6500K – 10,000K Are considered to be cool colors (blue).  Example light sources are LED or fluorescent lighting.

Depth of  Field – Focus

Depth of field is the space in your picture between the furthest and closest objects that appear to be in focus. Depth of field is largest when your aperture is smaller for example f/32.  For a narrow depth-of-field you a photographer would have select a wide aperture for example f/2.

Digital Negative

Digital negative or DNG  is a raw Digital Image format used in digital photography. DNG Is also known as Adobe Digital negative.

Digital Zoom

Digital zoom  is a feature of a camera where it crops and image down to a center area making the photo appear closer. When a photographer uses a DLSR the photographer zooms in and out optically using the lens,  where digital zoom is a function of a camera.  Digital zoom does not enhance You are photograph rather it just crops in at the center of your camera sensor, making the image appear to be closer. Digital zoom is not the preferred method for professional photographers as digital zoom merely crops your photo which lowers the pictures resolution.

DSLR

Digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR)  is a digital camera that combines Optics and Technology of a traditional film Single-Lens Reflex (SLR) camera.  Instead of film a DSLR  camera captures pictures on a digital sensor.  with a DSLR the light or image travels through the lens then to a mirror that sends the image to your viewfinder or eyepiece. When a photographer takes a picture that mirror rotates exposing the digital sensor to your frame which give us a picture. DSLR cameras  started to replace 35mm film cameras in the early 2000s.

Dye Sublimation

Dye sublimitation  is a printing method where a film of ink is heated to a high temperature which melts the ink to a special paper. Dye Sublimation printers  uses three different colors of ink: cyan, magenta and yellow which combine to create all colors needed to print a photographic image quickly and cheap. Some Dye-Sublimation printers use a clear or O for Overcoat layer providing a clear protection to your photograph.

Crop Factor

Crop factor is a term used with digital cameras describing its angle of view in a standard full frame/35mm lens. If your digital camera has an APS sensor it is physically smaller than 35mm film or a full frame sensor. Because your cameras digital sensor is smaller your pictures are cropped or zoomed in. Most compact cameras have a magnification factor of X 1.6, which makes a 35mm lens appear to be 56mm or a 200mm lens would feel like a 320mm lens.  One benefit of this crop factor is being able to get better telephoto pictures but a downside is it’s really hard to get a wide angle picture.

Dynamic Range

Dynamic range is the range of color tonality and brightness in a digital image.  The bigger your dynamic range the more detail will be in your photo. Dynamic range refers to the total amount of light being captured in a given scene. For example if a photographer was to take a picture of a sunset, which will have a bright sun and dark shadows in the foreground that scene could be described as having a great deal of dynamic range

DPI (dots per inch)

DPI is a printing term describing resolution in a photo or commercial print.  DPI can also be called PPI (Pixels Per Inch) if you are talking about a digital display.  When talking about DPI(dots per inch) The higher the dots per inch the higher the resolution of the print. On a computer screen, monitor or tv it displays at 72 DPI/PPI.  If you are printing CMYK your image would need to be 300 dpi.  Printing on an inkjet printer the DPI range can be to be 150 dpi – 360 dpi. Again when dealing with dpi (dots per inch)  the higher the number the higher the resolution of print. Home inkjet printers have a range of DPI because quality of home printers vary greatly. If you are going to print on a 300 DPI CMYK printer you are going to want to prep your files to match the 300dpi.  If you were to send a 400dpi photograph to 200dpi printer it doesn’t mean your picture will print at 400dpi. Your printer will downgrade everything automatically, which often this downgrade results In a lower quality photograph then if you would have just prepared the file for 200dpi originally

Electronic Viewfinder (EVF)

An electronic viewfinder is there a replacement to traditional camera viewfinders.  in a DSLR a photographer looks through a viewfinder which the image is being reflected through several lenses. An electronic viewfinder is a little digital display that replicates the camera’s field of view. One benefit of an electronic viewfinder  is the digital camera’s ability to display information like exposure data or simulation,  as well as focus and grid tools. The most popular & common example of an electronic viewfinder is your smartphone. When you are taking a picture with your phone your screen is actually your electronic viewfinder (EVF)

Export

Exporting is a step with most digital photographer’s workflow. Exporting is a process of sending a file through a specialized process,  app, or  editing software. Export can be as simple as saving a raw file as a jpeg.  Exporting can also be a complicated & time consuming process of exporting a video project (which can hold hundreds of different files) into one file final edited movie.  Photographers sometimes use term export as moving pictures from one place to another like a memory card to computer, or a hard drive to a jump drive.

Exposure Compensation

Exposure compensation is a feature most digital cameras offer.  Exposure compensation will adjust the cameras shutter speed or aperture Up or down from a base meter reading to achieve desired look (brighter or darker). Exposure compensation usually goes up or down in 1/2 or ⅓ stop increments. Digital camera auto exposure modes are often very accurate, but sometimes a photographer doesn’t like what the auto exposure is providing. For example if your pictures is too bright or too dark you can use exposure compensation to tell your camera to go brighter or darker  and how much brighter or darker it needs to be. A camera’s Auto exposure can be technically correct but it may not look the way a photographer wants it. Exposure compensation is the camera manufacturers way to accommodate for this problem.

F-Stop (aperture)

F-stop & aperture work in tandem because F-Stop is a way of measuring & describing the aperture “opening” of a photography lens. F-stops are done numerically f/1, f/1.4, f /2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/6.3, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22, f/32 f/64 etc…. The larger the f-stop number (f/64) the smaller the aperture will be, A wide open aperture would have a small f-stop value (f/2).  See  aperture for more info

Field Monitor

A field monitor is a digital display varying in small to large size. A field monitor is used to show pictures or videos on a larger screen when you the photographer actively shooting. Often a photographer will tether their camera to a computer so other team members/designers of the project can see pictures or video in real time.

File Format

File format is away and image is saved.  file formats can include but not limited to  JPEG,TIFF, RAW, PNG, PSD etc…. some file formats are widely accepted and used everywhere but not all file formats can be red on all computers or applications.  Often file formats are attached to specific programs. PSD (Photoshop Document). File formats are always evolving to accommodate for new technologies and demands as well as new file formats being created.

Firmware

Firmware is basically a digital camera’s code and software for operation. Firmware is installed in the cameras read-only memory (ROM) at the factory before being shipped out.  Firmware is stored in the camera’s  read-only memory(ROM) because it will be saved without a battery. Firmware is what makes your digital camera work and operate. Everything from the cameras menus to operating the shutter. Often camera manufacturers will update firmware so it’s important to check for updates. Firmware updates can update menus, functionality, or security to the digital camera.

Flash Sync

Flash sync is a photography lighting term that has two different meanings.  Flash sync can be a physical connection point between a camera external flash – PC port or a camera’s hot shoe.

Flash sync could also be used to describe the fastest shutter speed (Sync Speed) you can use and still have your full frame illuminated by your external flash/strobes. If a photographer was to take a picture above their sink speed only a limited part of their image will be exposed to the Flash. They’re all over several factors that make up a cameras flash sync or synch speed so it’s important to know your camera’s sync speed Digital Camera Sync speeds are typically 1/200th or 1/250th.  For example if your camera had a sync speed of 1/250 and you took a picture at 1/500 only half of your picture will be illuminated by your flash/strobe.  Sync speed is just the amount of time it takes your camera to tell your flash to fire. So going back to the previous  example the camera was almost done taking the picture before the flash even fired.

Gamma

Gamma is a nonlinear operation to code and decode light values in your pictures displayed on a monitor or in a printer. Gamma  describes a pixels numerical value,  and without gamma Pictures would not appear the same as our eye sees it. Cameras do not see light the way our eyes do.  For Example If a camera sees twice the number of photons the picture will be twice as bright. While if  our eyes see twice the number of photons it only appears to be a little brighter.

GIF

GIF is Graphics Interchange Format.  A GIF  is a bitmap image designed by CompuServe 1987. GIF is a great format for logos or lined based art, as well as creating small animations and low resolution video clips.

GPS (Global Positioning System)

Using coordinates obtained by satellites,  a GPS system can establish your location on Earth, by triangulating your location.  GPS is most commonly used in phones with maps and directions. Digital cameras use meta tags and GPS to indicate where the photo was captured. Having a digital camera with a GPS is great because you could look back on a picture 20 years from now and be able to see where and when it was taken.

Histogram

A histogram is a graphic representation of all the exposure values in your digital photograph. You can have both color and black and white histograms.  not all but most digital cameras have a histogram  feature built into their camera. A histogram has multiple uses  in digital photography  but the most common use for a histogram is to guide your overall exposure.

Hot Shoe

A hot shoe is a photography term to describe an accessory port and mounting point usually located on the top of your camera. A digital cameras hot shoe is a metal u-shaped bracket on the top of the camera. There are a lot of photography accessories that use the hot shoe: speedlights, triggers, mics etc… Not all digital cameras have a hot shoe and they are mostly found on DSLR and other professional cameras.

ICC Profile

ICC profile (International Color Consortium Profile) ICC profile is a color management standard which is universally recognized in digital imaging devices, cameras, & printers.  ICC profile and color management is designed to maintain a  consistent and  accurate  color representation, between your scanner, camera, computer, and printer.  

Image Stabilization

Image stabilization is Canon’s anti-shake technology built into some of their higher-end lenses. Canon’s Image Stabilization or IS lenses typically have a gyroscopic element in the back of the lens that constantly moves against the camera to try and counteract any movement created by the photographer.

Inkjet

Inkjet is a photography printing method, most commonly used in home printers.  inkjet printers Use micro Jets which sprays ink and little tiny droplets. (DPI Drops Per Inch) The inkjet printer draws your picture with the tiny droplets of ink.  

ISO (International Standards Organization)

ISO  is an abbreviation for the International Standards Organization. ISO is a rating system  describing light sensitivity or speed in your film or digital camera sensor.  The smaller or lower the number (ISO 200) means your film or digital sensor is least sensitive. Higher or larger the ISO number the more sensitive to light your film or digital sensor will be. ISO ranges are improving and changing with every new camera release.  ISO (International Standards Organization) and ASA American Standards Association both rate light sensitivity to light.

JPEG

(Joint Photographic Experts Group) Is the standard for image compression with digital cameras. Raw photos are very large in size and jpeg is a” lossy” compression format which is only fractions of the original file size.

Kilobyte

A kilobyte is a unit of information which equals 1024 bytes.  For example 5 kilobytes equal 5120 bytes, just like $1 is the same as 100 pennies.

LAB Color

LAB Color is a linear color space that utilizes luminance as a vehicle to increase color saturation as well as contrast. LAB Color Space exceeds the gamma, RGB & CMYK of other color models. Lab color  was created with the human vision in mind and Lab Color is larger than the gamut monitors and printers.

Lag Time (Shutter Lag)

Lag time, more commonly known as shutter lag is the lag time between the photographer pressing the shutter and the time the camera takes the picture. Lag times vary from camera model to camera model but typically less expensive cameras have greater lag times. There are  photography methods to minimize lag time,  for example pre focusing.

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)

LCDs   are most commonly used as the digital screen on the back of your camera to display pictures and other camera information.  LCD screams are also widely used in computer screens and home TVs.

LED (Light Emitting Diode)

LED is a semiconductor that emits a narrow spectrum of light. LEDs are used to illuminate both small and large areas as well as computer and imaging devices.  LEDs can be used and then indicator light or as a large light bulb Illuminating a room.

Lithium-ion battery (LIB)

A lithium ion is a rechargeable battery type which was created for cameras and camcorders.  Lithium ion batteries are common in most Electronics as they have a high energy density and a low self discharge  which means they have a lot of power and they won’t drain by themselves.

Lossy

Lossy is a data compression technique which reduces the size and detail of a digital picture. While losey greatly reduces the digital size of a picture it also decreases the quality of your digital photograph.  The more compression a photographer uses the lower the quality the picture will be.

Matrix Metering

Matrix metering is a digital camera metering system where it takes the total image area and breaks it into smaller sections.  The smaller sections can then be analyzed by the light meter to create a more accurate exposure.  Matrix metering is great if you are taking a picture of a backlit subject. Instead of having the camera taking an average reading you can you select where the camera exposes from.  a great example would be taking a picture of a backlit subject.

Megabyte (MB)

Megabyte refers to the measurement or size of a digital file.  There are 1024 Kilobytes (KB) for every megabyte

Megapixel

Megapixel  is used to describe the size and quality of a digital camera sensor.  generally speaking the more megapixels in your camera the more detailed the photograph. 1 Megapixel contains 1 million pixels. Camera megapixels are always improving but a phone camera might have 8 megapixels while a professional DSLR will have 30 megapixels.

 

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Shutter Lag (Lag Time)

Shutter lag is the amount of delay between the time the shutter is pressed and when the camera captures the picture. Shutter lag can also be known as lag time or delay, More common and cheaper or less expensive digital cameras.

 

Sync Speed

Sync Speed is used to describe the fastest shutter speed (Sync Speed) you can use and still have your full frame illuminated by your external flash/strobes. If a photographer was to take a picture above their sink speed only a limited part of their image will be exposed to the Flash. They’re all over several factors that make up a cameras flash sync or synch speed so it’s important to know your camera’s sync speed Digital Camera Sync speeds are typically 1/200th or 1/250th.  For example if your camera had a sync speed of 1/250 and you took a picture at 1/500 only half of your picture will be illuminated by your flash/strobe.  Sync speed is just the amount of time it takes your camera to tell your flash to fire. So going back to the previous  example the camera was almost done taking the picture before the flash even fired.

 

Additive Colors

Additive colors are red, green, blue (RGB),  and additive color uses a  mixture of R,G,B lights mixed together to produce your color.  you see additive colors mostly used in theater & stage lighting

Subtractive Colors

Subtractive colors are cyan, magenta, yellow, Black (CMYK – K is from blacK) Subtractive color  is when a color absorbs 1 of the additive colors. For example The color cyan subtract red and only reflects green and blue so or eye will see it as cyan. The color magenta will subtract green and reflect red and blue so our eye sees it as magenta. what color yellow will subtract red while reflecting red and green which our eye sees it as yellow. If you are to combine cyan, magenta and yellow your eye will see black.

 

AF Servo

AF Servo is an Automatic Focusing system in your camera. With continuous servo AF your camera will constantly focus  to try and keep moving objects in focus.  For example if you had a bicycle riding towards you the photographer, your camera will update the focus live. Another benefit of Continuous Servo AF is if the photographer is moving while your subject is holding still the camera will adjust its focus.  

 

Vibration Reduction

Vibration Reduction is Nikon’s anti-shake technology built into some of their higher-end lenses. Nikon Vibration Reduction or VR lenses typically have a gyroscopic element in the back of the lens that constantly moves against the camera to try and counteract any movement created by the photographer

 

Rolling Shutter

Rolling shutter effect is a product of a CMOS digital camera sensor. Where traditional film cameras capture the image all at once, a CMOS  digital camera sensor  captures the image one row at a time. If a photographer (with a CMOS sensor) was it take a picture of a very fast moving object, like a Helicopter you would notice that the rotor blades seem to be bent. Your picture will have this rolling shutter effect because  the helicopter rotor blades moved while your picture was being taken.

 

 

 

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